Ion-selective electrodes using carbon nanotubes as ion-to-electron transducers
Crespo, GA; Macho, S; Rius, FX
Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 1316-1322
This study developed a new type of all-solid-state ion-selective electrode based on a transducing layer of a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes.The extraordinary capacity of carbon nanotubes to promote electron transfer between heterogeneous phases made the presence of electroactive polymers or any other ion-to-electron-transfer promoter unnecessary. The new transducer layer was characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The stability of the electrical potential of the new solid-contact electrode was examined by performing current-reversal chronopotentiometry, and the influence of the interfacial water film was assessed by the potentiometric water layer test. The performance of the new electrode was evaluated by determining K+ with an ion-selective membrane that contained the well-known valinomycin ion carrier. The new electrode had a Nernstian slope (58.4 mV/decade), dynamic ranges of four logarithmic units, and selectivities and limits of detection comparable to other solid-contact electrodes. The short response time (less than 10 s for activities higher than 10-5.5 M) and the stability of the signal over several days makes these new electrodes very promising candidates for attaining true miniaturization.